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alpha-1 antitrypsin


A condition or illness that usually has a rapid onset of symptoms and may resolve within days with or without treatment. It is the opposite of chronic.

acute phase reactant

A protein that increases or decreases in concentration with conditions that cause acute tissue inflammation or trauma.


Any of the many tiny air sacs of the lungs which allow for rapid gaseous exchange.

autosomal codominant pattern


“Individuals receive one version of a gene, called an allele, from each parent. If the alleles are different, the dominant allele usually will be expressed, while the effect of the other allele, called recessive, is masked. In codominance, however, neither allele is recessive and the phenotypes of both alleles are expressed.” “Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) … Read more


An Alpha-1 Carrier is a person who has one normal ATT gene (M) and one defective AAT gene (usually S or Z). It does NOT mean you cannot get sick.


A condition or illness that arises slowly over days or weeks and may or may not resolve with treatment. It is the opposite of acute.


Cirrhosis is a condition (not a disease) that results from permanent damage or scarring of the liver. Source: Canadian Liver Foundation


Obstructive airway disease in which the walls of the alveoli (air sacs) are damaged or destroyed.

neutrophil elastase

A powerful enzyme released from white blood cells to fight infection, but it can attack normal tissues (especially the lungs) if not tightly controlled by alpha-1 antitrypsin. Source: Genetics Home Reference.